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The report concluded that in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany, research in organic farming is City Spiel of a national programme, but national co-ordination in Austria and France was less formal. Finally, Chapter 5 draws some conclusions. Publications and manifestations The Technical Beste Spielothek in Windhag finden of Organic Farming publishes a technical review: Alter-Agri, some technical guides The quality of organic products, organic fertilisation, organic arboriculture, This finding, however, is subject to several qualifications: Land set free from decreased feed demand for cereals, pulses and roots can be used for alternative food production purposes. Influence of OF on nitric waste in soil! Due to the relatively dated nature of these projections, however, we also compare the FAO projections to Geschenke Zum Weltfrauentag and Rosegrantwho project the development Spiele Online Umsonst world food balances up to This has the effect of increasing food prices for animal as well as plant products as analyzed in detail in Section 4. On the other hand, there are several obstacles to be overcome, for example, difficulties in growing legumes, such as clover, shortage of organic fertilisers and feeds, Beste Spielothek in GГјtersloh finden erosion in some parts of the country and reluctance to accept organic growing practices. The research concentrates on the search for preventative measures Beste Spielothek in Mittelschmalkalden finden organic crop protection. Budget provision varies widely and in some cases the budget for organic farming is difficult to separate from that for total agricultural research.

Iceland noted that private support for research in organic farming was difficult to obtain, perhaps as a result of the smallness of the community and also reflecting the relative lack of pressure for change there.

Romania calls for more external financial support for organic farming research and Poland sees a need for private support, for example from local food exporting companies.

Veterinary Office - 0. Most countries undertook organic research at government-supported research stations and many also had active university research systems.

Farms tended to be linked to these research establishments and of these also worked with private organic farms. In the Flemish region of Belgium a Research Centre on Organic Production was established in with the objective of co-ordinating most research activities.

This centre has a farm still in conversion and a greenhouse. In the Walloon region of Belgium the research activities on organic agriculture are mainly performed at the agronomy faculties of the different universities and at the Agricultural Research Centre in Gembloux.

In Denmark, DARCOF facilities include two organic research stations, crop rotation sites, organic workshop sites as well as agreements with private organic farmers who make their farms available for research.

Finland and Norway both used private farms in research and Germany mentioned that most research institutes would have their own farms where research would be carried out.

In Cyprus, there is only one research institute carrying out organic farming research. In Germany research is carried out in a range of universities and institutes, most having organic sections at their own farms.

Ireland has two organic units 18 and 50 hectares in two larger farms and also has a training farm for organic agriculture.

In Poland there are four universities and one research institute concerned with research in organic farming. These each have organic experimental plots, but no complete, dedicated farm.

Research is carried out in Norway on 3 experimental organic farms as well as on private farms and a specific body, the Norwegian Research and Extension Groups co-ordinates field work throughout the country.

Norway, Poland and the UK thought that their organic farming research had also had some impact on driving policy and in providing evidence to promote aspects of organic farming.

Poland said that it had created a basis for government regulations but that overall impact could be greater. In the UK, research has been useful for directing policy on support levels for organic farming, defining areas for support, defining limitations and has helped UK negotiators in the EU.

However, much research had no formal assessment for impact on policy. Others thought that effect on policy was difficult to detect.

Scope for co-operation at European level Countries were asked to list where they saw areas that would benefit from trans-national research in organic agriculture.

A summary of responses is shown in the table below. There was also interest in animal health and welfare, product quality processing and marketing.

Iceland sees participation in co-ordinated research policies as important for the development or organic agriculture in general, while Austria sees a need for a uniform technical setting for experiments in order that results from different regions are comparable.

Crop productions systems came out as the topic that would most benefit from trans-national cooperation, but several countries also flagged up studies relating to various aspects of marketing in their submissions.

For example, in Cyprus there is seen to be a need for research into various aspects of marketing of organic produce, and for studies on country-specific production methods.

The following table summarises topics indicated by some countries as suitable for transnational co-operation.

Mormont Fondation Universitaire Luxembourgoise Mr. Van Huylenbroeck Universiteit Gent! Verstraete, Prof.

Reheul, Prof. De Baerdemaeker, Prof. Van Cleemput Prof. Lateur, Mr. Van Huylenbroeck Universiteit Gent Mr.

Market demand for organic products Marketing of agricultural products and competition in the market Private support for promoting production and products involved in production such as plant protection, compost etc!

Agricultural Research Institute Principal scientists! Papastylianou, Co-ordinator, Dr P. Charalambus, Entomologist! Mrs Th. Kapari, Plant Pathologist, Mr G.

Eliades, Soil Scientist! Vouzounis, Weed specialist! Gregoriou, Potato specialist! Mrs M. Ioannou, Vegetable production specialist! Georgiou, Citrus-Olives specialist 3 Germany!

Status quo analyses of different production procedures Status quo analyses and the development of strategies for the solution of present problems in organic agriculture nutrition supply, crop protection including stock protection.

Analyses of organic seed and plant production and of special issues of organic husbandry Comprehensive issues of production technology Processing of organic products and quality aspects Socio-economic analyses in the area of organic agriculture and of processing of organic products Marketing of organic products and demand for bio-products including out-of-home catering Analysis of the contribution of organic agriculture to reaching social goals Certification and control systems in the area of organic agriculture!

Information on Federal programme for Organic Agriculture www. Box 50, DK Tjele I. Effect of grassland composition and frequency in crop rotation.

Quality and risks of organic food! Consumer oriented product development! Maintenance of soil fertility!

Safe recycling of organic waste! Improved production of seeds! Improved production of organic milk and meat! Animal welfare and organic farming!

Local food systems! Role of organic farming in multifunctional and pluriactive agriculture Funded projects! Improving the degree of processing of organic food!

Use of Caraway oil to prevent fungal disease in potato! Improving the cultivation technology of organic strawberry!

Quality production of outdoor vegetables for food industry! Growing power for fodder cereals in organic farming! Consumer views about proceeded organic food products!

Research on production chains for organic seed within EU and possible applications in Finland! Selenium in organic foodstuffs!

Environmental loading from organic farming! PDF Researchers:! Quality and safety risk and their control in the production chain of organic cheeses Management of earthworm communities in amelioration of structurally deteriorated field soils!

Cereal production: kinetics of crop requirements and soil nitrogen mineralization! Fruit growing: fertilization, fruit quality, hedgerows, biodiversity!

Livestock production! How to improve OF standards to meet consumer requirements? Development of production systems in potato growing!

Plant breeding for potato growing! Environmental risk assessment in dairy farming! Sustainability of OF holdings in dairy farming.

Organic milk quality and supply chain management! Plant breeding in cereals, cabbage, cauliflower! Influence of wheat cultivation management on mycotoxins!

Cultivation of organic oilseed rape! Influence of OF on nitric waste in soil! Development of organic rice and hard wheat in Camargue!

Organic fertilization in vegetable growing! How to reduce the use of copper! Controlling grapevine yellows!

Production of seeds and plants in OF! Plant propagation systems, variety screening in organic farming systems! Fertilization, farmyard manure, soil fertility!

Cereal selection! Crop production, animal husbandry! Conversion, development of OF! Economic aspects,.. Technical Institutes! Parasite prevention in organic animal husbandry, animal feeding!

Weed control! Cereal growing! Fruits and vegetables growing! Wine growing copper, grapevine yellow.. Pre- and post harvest protection of organic crops against pests and disease agents.

Development of appropriate organic plant nutrition adapted to various sites in the country, various soils and under the extreme water shortage conditions of Israeli agriculture.

Development of the organic farming technology in protected crops and in open fields Supported projects:! Integrated control of pests and diseases and nutrition of vegetables grown in protective ambient!

Control of soil-borne disease agents in protected organic crops using cover crops and rotation! Sustainable farming for an organic fruit plantation!

Integrated approaches to prevent decay and improved post harvest storage of organic produce! Effects of compost on the populations of bacteria involved in nitrification and nitrogen fixation!

Faculty of Agriculture of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem www. Jcrowley oakpark. Lconnolly athenry. Hay production in organic systems! Organic horticulture Non-organic projects with some organic relevance:!

Native legumes in Iceland. Use of nuclear technique in improving pasture management and The Icelandic Nitrogen Project Comparison of rhizobium strains for white clover and red clover.

Overwintering and yield of white clover White clover Rhizobium symbiosis: Characterization of plant residue quality for prediction of decomposition and nitrogen release in agricultural soils Long term effects of sheep manure on cultivated hayfield; on yield, macrofauna and soil respiration.

Effect of slurry application on establishment and yield of timothy and bent grass. Production potential of warped meadows Organic horticulture, especially for home gardening, the cultivation of berry bushes and trials for strains of agricultural crop plants.

Influence of direct injection of manure and seed on yield and soil surface fauna. Stefano Bocchi , Prof. Mario Pirani! Maurizio Borin! Raffaele Zanoli!

Fabio Santucci! Francesco Ansaloni! Antonio Asciuto National Research Institutes:! Istituto per la nutrizione delle piante Prof. Sequi Istituto per la cerealicoltura Sezione S.

Angelo Lodigiano Dr. Marcus Kelderer Regional and Provincial Organisations:! For these purposes there is a small budget from Ministry of Agriculture and from Latvian Board of Sciences.

Kudirkos str. Julijonas Petraitis and Dr. Soil and fertilisation 10 projects Living propagation stock 26 projects Crop protection 22 projects Animal health 3 projects Farm management 7 projects Farming systems 36 projects Rural areas 1 project Agro-chains 11 projects Market and Consumers 2 projects Man and society 3 projects Knowledge chains 11 projects Website: www.

Jordforsk, Fredrik A. Box St. Henryk Runowski, Prof. Jerzy Szymona, Ass. Researchers: Prof. The organization has following main goals:!

Crop production arable crops, grassland, horticultural crops in breeding, variety testing, production technique, plant protection and quality improvement.

Animal husbandry small and big ruminants, poultry, pigs and bees in breeding, freerange systems, feeding and housing. Animal health ruminants, poultry and pigs focussing on herd management, prevention, biocontrol and complementary medicine.

Socio-economics focussing on farm management and economics, markets and consumers, policy assessment and sociological studies. Biodiversity and landscape improvements.

Processing methods and technical procedures esp. Overall budget in research and knowledge transfer for organic farming: 7. Director: Dr. Urs Niggli.

Research focus in organic arable crops and grassland in evolution. Contact person: Dr. Padruot M. Fried, Head Department for Production Systems.

Dubois fal. Fried fal. Ursula R. Fax E-Mail landw. To assess the economic implications of converting to organic production;!

To compare the environmental effects of organic farming compared to other types of agriculture;! To relieve constraints to organic production, so to make organic farming more attractive, and commercially viable;!

To ensure that technology transfer is maximised. Project areas:! Animal Production 9 projects! Animal Health and Welfare 4 projects! Nutrients and Soil Fertility 6 projects!

Environmental 2 projects! Economics of Organic Farming 3 projects! Crops 17 projects! Plant Pests and Diseases 9 projects!

Dr Ray Keatinge, Dr W. Organic Farming is a high priority topic within one of the four strategic key areas of the research programme PFEIL By taking into account the political priorities Strategy on Organic Farming in Austria; BMLFUW research in Organic Farming will be pushed forward and the budget allocated for research in this area will increase from This network includes all scientists in organic farming and is based on interdisciplinary research.

Any other issues you feel are important in driving research on organic agriculture Research activities in the area of organic farming are connected closely to defined methodological criteria as requirements for a systems oriented approach in organic farming3: - Interdisciplinary - holistic approach - Long-term initiatives - Site orientation - Practical orientation - Regionally related approaches An expert roundtable has been initiated involving different stakeholders researchers, organic agriculture organisations, NGOs, etc.

Scope for co-ordinating national programmes at a European level We have to take into consideration, that national programmes are worked out under specific requirements and with different geographical conditions, nevertheless there is a need for co-ordination in some areas and the support of networking at a European level.

Van Huylenbroeck Universiteit Gent 2. Van Cleemput, Prof. The team of scientists involved in this research is as follows: - Dr I. Papastylianou, Co-ordinator Dr P.

Charalambus, Entomologist Mrs Th. Kapari, Plant Pathologist Mr G. Eliades, Soil Scientist Mr N. Vouzounis, Weed specialist Mr S.

Gregoriou, Potato specialist Mrs M. Ioannou, Vegetable production specialist Dr A. Georgiou, Citrus-Olives specialist Also three new recently appointed scientists, will be involved with organic agriculture in their future studies.

There is an urgent need for production of a package of knowledge for production under Cyprus soil and climatic conditions.

Until this is succeeded the growth rate of organic production will remain very slow. Detailed information can be obtained from www. In the later part some general comments on research co-ordination are given.

Danish research in organic farming Throughout the s organic production has grown rapidly in Denmark.

In the organic area will approach close to 7 percent of the total agricultural area. This development has been supported through the preparation of national policies action plans.

Coordinating centres As a direct result of the first action plan for organic farming in Denmark the Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming DARCOF was founded in with the objective to provide the overall framework for Danish research on organic farming.

Its aim is to elucidate the ideas and problems faced in organic farming through the promotion of high quality research of international standard.

Research facilities A series of unique research facilities are set up to provide opportunity for conducting different projects simultaneously, using the same research fields, herds, etc.

The facilities included two organic research stations, crop rotation trials, organic workshop sites and agreements with private organic farmers who make their farms available for research.

The main aim of SOAR is to improve and strengthen teaching of ph. Completed research From to 33 research projects at a total cost of app.

The research provided new knowledge on the possibilities for establishing sustainable and productive organic production systems.

The initiative consist of 42 major research projects, it last from to and is has a total value of app. In Appendix 1 a list of projects and the leading scientists are given.

Challenges to organic research Research at many different levels in the agricultural system can be of relevance to organic farming. By establishing a "centre without walls" where the actual research is performed in interdisciplinary collaboration between the participating research groups situated at existent research institutions, it is possible to use the knowledge and expertise of different research groups.

The construction is thus especially suitable for making both analytical research and solving complex and interdisciplinary problems in organic farming.

The decentralised structure provides the framework for a flexible form of organisation, as well as good opportunities to draw on the greatest expertise and the best facilities available in the research system.

Furthermore, synergistic interactions are encouraged through collaboration between different research environments and through the complementary nature of research in organic farming and other disciplines.

On the other hand this decentralised structure carries the risk that the research effort could become too diffuse and disjointed.

This would impede the assimilation of new 10 knowledge on organic farming, as well as the scientific impact of new research findings, nationally and internationally.

Among others, the challenge is therefore to maintain research of high quality and of international standard.

However, organic farming is characterised by a "recycling and prevention" rather than a "chain and cure" approach.

It is thus not so much the particular methodologies, which characterise organic farming, but rather the overall context and mutual relationships within which problems are defined.

The overview concludes that the research volume in organic farming has been at a level of MEUR 2,5 annually in recent years. The main part of it has been supported by the MAF either by the budget of its research institutes mainly AgriFood Finland MTT and the Game and Fisheries Research Institute or, by financing competitive research projects from its non-allocated research budget.

The main research funding agencies, the Academy of Finland and Tekes and the National Technology Agency have supported research in organic farming only in individual projects.

The participation of industries in the so-far carried out projects have been very marginal, although it seems that the interest is rising.

The MAF has an annual budget of Meur 7,0 for agricultural and food research for competitive research projects proposed by the scientific community.

The expert group proposed a more systematic approach to organic farming research and a substantial increase in the funding. Therefore, the MAF has decided to launch a Meur 3 research programme for for research in this field.

The expert working group suggested the following priority areas for the next 3 years: Quality and risks of organic food; Consumer oriented product development; Maintenance of soil fertility; Safe recycling of organic waste; Improved production of seeds; Improved production of organic milk and meat; Animal welfare and organic farming; Local food systems; Role of organic farming in multifunctional and pluriactive agriculture.

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Dept. It is the recognized and historical player for applied research in that sector.

The implementation of a medium-term plan for development of organic farming, in , has resulted in the involvement of new partners in organic farming research: technical institutesChambers of agriculture Willing to set up longstanding partnerships with these new players in organic farming research, ITAB has developed close relations with the organizations active in conventional research.

Thus, ITAB plays a central role in this network by liaising the different actions and ensuring the link between farmers and researchers and is recognize by ANDA7 as national coordinator for research and technical actions in the field of organic farming.

Sylvander and S. Bellon document 1,9 2 1,64 1,25 0,35 8,75! CNRS: soil fertility, environmental risk assessment in a dairy farming!

ENSAM: wine growing! ENSAR: sustainability of organic farming! ISARA: fertilization! ESA Angers: organic feed quality for pig farming,!

GRAB: horticulture, fruit and wine growing! CREAB: cereal growing! Private research:! Biolait: quality of organic milk!

Danon : quality of organic product! Moreover, ITAB has recently started to elaborate and coordinate some multidisciplinary research programs, regarded as first priority by organic farmers.

Organization To conduct these actions efficiently, ITAB is organised in committees, for each production animal breeding, arable crops, wine growing, fruit and vegetables and on crosscutting issues agronomy and production systems, product quality and seeds.

Publications and manifestations The Technical Institute of Organic Farming publishes a technical review: Alter-Agri, some technical guides The quality of organic products, organic fertilisation, organic arboriculture, These conferences allow scientists and farmers to have technical exchanges.

Although this starting point still leaves scope for analytical research, it is also likely to reinforce the systemic approach.

It leads to an understanding of the processes employed in production under the constraints of regulatory standards. Those principles therefore combine academic criteria and compliance with the requirements of OF.

So far work has begun on compiling a database of scientific literature, scientific seminars on specific questions have been held in association with OF organisations ITAB and non-INRA researchers and practitioners, and a research program is under development by organising an in-house invitation-totender, in accordance with the applicable regulations.

The INRA allocates 5. So far 55 projects have been assessed and 20 are on-going. About 32 full-time researchers work on those projects.

The following questions are crucial to the research program: What are the specific features of research into OF? Subsequently, does science need to change its objectives and approaches increasing specialisation vs.

Introduction Agricultural institutions and trade organisations have long viewed organic farming OF as a marginal activity. The INRA has been no exception, maintaining reservations about the practice.

However, recent political recognition of OF has prompted various organisations to draw up policies to promote it.

In France, this shift can be dated to the December introduction of a medium-term plan for the development of organic farming. The INRA, for its part, announced its commitment to a research program in January , while emphasising the need to comply with 9 National Institute for Agricultural Research 24 the rules governing all research activity.

In this paper we indicate how the INRA intends to move ahead in this area and we give examples of its activities. The INRA serves as a platform for the objectives and resources of most scientific disciplines with a bearing on agriculture, the environment, and food.

At present, the INRA has approximately 8, employees, of whom 1, are research scientists working in teams that also include engineers, technicians, and administrative staff.

These teams are grouped into 17 research departments with each department pursuing its own scientific objectives within the strategic framework laid down by the institute.

Basic principles The INRA seeks to pursue an all-round approach combining cross-disciplinary and partnership-based research.

It views OF as an agricultural prototype and draws the consequences of this in terms of its potential scientific repercussions. This starting point still allows for analytical research while also reinforcing the systemic approach.

It leads to an understanding of the processes involved in farming to meet strict production standards and should, in the long term, yield innovative solutions.

A further challenge is to understand the way in which the demands that society makes of OF are to be analysed and ranked by order of importance, whether in terms of production, processing, or control of the outputs of OF product quality, ecological balance, environmental impact, macro-economic optimisation, etc.

The task of the INRA's Internal Committee on Organic Farming is to make progress on various fronts: knowledge of OF through the compilation of a database of scientific reference works with links to other databases , scientific seminars through the organisation of conferences on specific topics in association with OF organisations and with the participation of INRA and non-INRA scientists and practitioners10 , and the development of a research program through the organisation of an in-house invitation-to-tender under the applicable regulations.

The aim of this project is to identify motivated in-house teams and to construct a network that is both consistent and reliable in terms of sharing information, defining objectives and methods, providing research incentives, and evaluating and transferring results.

This group is to support the DGER in coordinating programs on research, development, and education. Current activities: internal projects In , the INRA supported a number of research teams and experimental units currently working on OF.

The main objective was to strengthen such units and to enhance their research achievements by providing additional financing.

Here are three examples from different domains. Because, in organic crop farming, the discrepancy between the kinetics of crop requirements and the soil nitrogen mineralisation rate affects wheat yield and grain quality and in order to help reduce the shortage of organic cereals in France, support was given to research into improving the nitrogen management of winter wheat by optimising spring fertilisation.

In fruit growing, an experimental unit SE France has been working for several years to optimise organic peach and apple production techniques.

Fertilisation is being investigated by monitoring both the nitrogen mineralization rate in soils and fruit quality.

This work has now been extended to apple growing. The effects of mixed hedgerows on fauna that are beneficial to orchards is also under study and ties in with the wider question of biodiversity.

In organic livestock farming, priority has been given to sheep farming in the central mountain area of France. The aim is to compare two grass-based feeding systems with a view to extending lamb production periods.

The study specifically addresses connections between animal feeding practices and health through a cross-disciplinary approach combining technical and economic studies, and associating research, training, and development activities across a range of structures.

These are described with examples below. As expected, responses came from research units and technical institutes alike. A common feature of the projects is their cross-disciplinary nature and the use of a battery of methods field and laboratory studies, modeling, and testing.

One project seeks to reduce the use of copper by identifying disease tolerant crop varieties, optimizing copper application methods, and testing crop management strategies.

The project also tests alternative products and bio-stimulators and evaluates the effects of applying copper on various soil types with perennial crops.

The research seeks to understand the biological processes involved and to develop alternative control strategies. Proposed projects on the production of seed and plants suitable for OF relate mostly to the actual planting material, particularly for field and tree crops.

However, for seed production, a sanitary quality insurance process is also planned, focusing on key crop species and diseases.

For the future, the INRA considers it essential for research programs to investigate organic food quality taste, nutritional quality, and safety and wider social issues such as the environmental impact of OF as well as animal welfare, ethical trading, etc.

Finally, we intend to evaluate our approach based upon systemic thinking and partnership-based research. Discussion We have little hindsight as yet and it is still too early for a review, but we can propose a number of ideas.

One approach would be to argue that science is the same everywhere for everyone and that such a program should consider OF more as an area of research, separating the applied objectives that are specific to OF from the scientific objectives and resources that are generic OF as an area of research.

A second approach would be to treat OF as a specific object of scientific research and to maintain that specific objects involve specific mechanisms and methods, even if they must still bear the hallmark of scientific rigor OF as a scientific object.

We feel it is too early to decide either way and that the program should be assessed on the basis of concrete experience.

The options should therefore be kept open as far as possible. However, we see the debate as an important one for two reasons. The first is obviously scientific and epistemological, while the second is political and institutional.

The future of research programs on OF will probably be determined in part by the way the debate is conducted and concluded.

Institutionally, the main thing is to convince research scientists themselves that a program on OF is scientifically worth while and that they can make a successful career out of projects of this sort.

If the argument goes in favour of OF as a non specific area of research, the scientific questions of interest will still need answering, although there may be fewer of them.

Conversely, if the argument goes in favour of OF as a specific scientific object, the program may become even more worth while in the future.

This debate is an important one and should be conducted both within the scientific community and between the scientists and the practitioners of OF within the context of the partnership arrangements referred to earlier in this paper.

An essential condition for doing this is to show mutual respect for each party and its explicit rules. Scientists must be willing to accept the constraints of production standards as defining a model of farming under constraint and must construct their projects and protocols accordingly and therefore by discussing their objectives and characteristics with practitioners.

This entails, in field experiments, constantly questioning the practitioners so as to learn about farming in accordance with the rules and practices of OF.

Lastly, partnership-based research implies planning from the outset to include the relevant categories for action Sebillotte, Likewise practitioners will find it helpful to understand the logic behind the scientific approach: scientific questions are initially practical questions asked in different ways, often by over simplifying; they must be innovative and should not aim merely to apply or adapt tried-and-tested ideas; they are not therefore confined to experiments designed to test a given technique; protocols must be rigorous; results may be unexpected and even contrary to what was hoped for; they may sometimes be of little 27 immediate benefit and they may take a long time to acquire; finally scientific knowledge is universal in character and must be certified by academic publication if it is to exist at all.

This mutual respect implies that neither partner can demand that the other break with the relevant ground rules.

However, the partners may construct a common culture around the debate without either side imposing its culture on the other.

In the day-to-day work of partnership-based research many things need to be developed jointly, both when deciding on the research objectives and when deciding how to achieve them.

First, partnership-based research cannot be conducted successfully without clear objectives that are prioritised and agreed to by scientists and practitioners alike.

Experience shows that this is difficult to achieve. Should one opt for fast and ambitious expansion of OF or slow but steady development based on a niche strategy?

Among other things, this question dictates which localised and generic production techniques and systems are to be promoted as being consistent with the regulatory standards.

Are we moving toward exclusively mixed crop-livestock farming systems or should specialised systems be developed? What are the consequences for major crops and for fertilisation?

What connections are there with research into varieties suitable for OF? Should we seek to classify general objectives by rank order or to define relevant and viable categories of situation?

In the case of genetic selection of wheat varieties in OF, for example, the ordering of the criteria of productivity, nitrogen content, ground cover rate, disease resistance, and straw length is necessarily related to the production systems employed.

The multiplicity of situations seems to call for several rank orders but assumes some degree of openness in the choice of production systems which may not be agreed to by all and which could explain why there is no unanimous agreement about the criteria.

It also assumes that we have data about the most relevant situations, which is difficult at present. Production standards are an obvious starting point prototype but they are liable to change in line with the technical and ethical logic of production or in accordance with new objectives related to society's demands.

In addition, standards may be interpreted in accordance with situations and practices, which illustrates the diversity and variability of production systems even within OF.

As concerns the research mechanisms, the first approach OF as an area of research implies that once the objectives have been defined e.

The second approach entails reflecting about just how specific the research is. For example, OF calls for a systemic approach in its very conception of production.

This is not completely exclusive, as systemic research is carried out for other production systems, but the approach may help in differentiating some OF research from strictly analytic approaches.

In some instances, it seems that the system can be broken down into almost independent sub-units this 28 might be the case for research in the Camargue on hard wheat and rice: genetic research, production systems, and value-enhancement processes are all partly independent.

This is not self-evident and caused fierce debate within the team and with the practitioners. As such, it is pointless opposing comparisons suspected by some practitioners of tending to "evaluate OF" and the study of how an actual organic system operates, as the two approaches can be complementary.

Niggli and O. Schmidt, Another source of specific features about research into OF could be the understanding of biological variability, which is the corollary of agriculture based on natural equilibria.

This presupposes that practitioners and scientists alike come to consider learning about the scientific management of variability of living organisms in an uncertain environment as a primary objective.

This is not a straightforward question as it is beset by scientific and political controversies. It prompts scientists to think about intentionally reducing variability this is often the case in animal hygiene and product hygiene , and goes as far as genetic engineering.

Adapting varieties to various situations may for example lead some geneticists to want to return to "population varieties" while their colleagues only see progress in F1 hybrids.

This choice is not self-evident as it leads to controversy and contains very real challenges for scientists and laboratories. Practitioners too are confronted with this question, for example, about how far and in what way to codify practices in production standards, which are necessarily simplifications compared with the actual diversity of practices and local situations.

In doing this, legitimate questions are raised about generalising OF and about the limits of the system. Finally comes the question of approaches that are so radically new compared with "standard" scientific approaches that they confound the scientists.

This is the case, for example, with the principles of biodynamic agriculture, of homeopathy, or the "global" approach to quality based among other things on "tangible crystallisation".

Such approaches demand a special effort if they are to be changed into research questions, and skills that are not necessarily found in institutes like the INRA, prior studies of the literature in which validation by outside experts and scientific debate are primordial in insuring stringent protocols and general results.

This process is not necessarily beyond reach but it will take time. From the outset, they adopt a "procedural" posture of science in the making by the sociological interplay of the world of research and its environment, Latour, and of scientific research programs advocated by Lakatos Cabaret, This calls for a large dose of modesty, both because scientific truth is by definition falsifiable and consequently knowledge is historically dated and because what were thought of as linear orientations of agronomic research defined by their own internal logic were in fact greatly influenced by the objectives of a historically dated agricultural policy and by the industrial rationale of the post-war period.

Conclusions and recommendations In conclusion, it can be said that the complexity of the question and the specific nature of research in OF, addressed in this paper, should prompt us to a good deal of modesty and patience, since the various projects need to be evaluated with a view to validating or rejecting many of the hypotheses set out here.

The examples of partnership-based research conducted by the INRA so far show that these are always historically long processes14 that are time consuming and that entail gradual, mutual learning processes with a view to defining common objectives as well as finalizing as joint constructions mechanisms that are often complex and difficult to manage.

In addition, this type of research assumes, as we have seen, transverse scientific leadership, continual project monitoring, evaluation from the standpoints of scientists and practitioners and, of course, the unfailing support of the institutions and their research departments.

On a more political front we need: a to lobby for a permanent network compiling the research projects in progress, project results, and scientific publications throughout Europe.

This urgent question must be put before the EU b to work out a co-ordination system in order to gather practitioners' requirements for further research: farmers, processors, consumers, institutions certification bodies, etc.

This system must extend to different levels: the projects themselves and the overall political level c to complete research projects, in order to reach a single definition of what organic farming is in Europe, since diverse interpretations of the EU regulations lead to unfair competition within the organic market and mar the image of OF d to conduct projects in closer relationship with non organic research, in order to legitimise the specificity of OF in scientific terms and to ensure positive exchanges between research on conventional and organic farming systems e to diversify the fields of research: OF's impact on the environment and rural development, better definition of animal welfare, nutritional and hygienic quality of organic products, consumer expectations and general education concerning agriculture in general i.

Cabaret J. Lakatos I. Latour B. Niggli U. Riba, G. Sebillotte M. Sylvander, B. Development of production systems in potato growing Plant breeding for potato growing Environmental risk assessment in dairy farming Sustainability of OF holdings in dairy farming Organic milk quality and supply chain management Plant breeding in cereals, cabbage, cauliflower Influence of wheat cultivation management on mycotoxins Cultivation of organic oilseed rape Influence of OF on nitric waste in soil Development of organic rice and hard wheat in Camargue marshlands in southern France Organic fertilisation in vegetable growing Organic feed quality for pig farming Collaborative projects Call opened by INRA and ACTA, How to reduce the use of copper Controlling grapevine yellows Production of seeds and plants in OF Fertilisation in OF 32 GERMANY Publicly-funded research on organic agriculture and food production in Germany In , the Federal Programme "Organic Agriculture" was launched in Germany.

These can be grouped in three areas around the value-added chain, complemented by two interdisciplinary areas: 1 2 3 4 5 "Agricultural Production" "Recording and Processing" "Trade, Marketing and Consumers" "Technology Development and Transfer" "Accompanying Measures" At the core of the funded projects so far are: - - Status quo analyses of different production procedures Status quo analyses and the development of strategies for the solution of present problems in organic agriculture nutrition supply, crop protection including stock protection.

Analyses of organic seed and plant production and of special issues of organic husbandry Comprehensive issues of production technology Processing of organic products and quality aspects Socio-economic analyses in the area of organic agriculture and of processing of organic products Marketing of organic products and demand for bioproducts including out-of-home catering Analysis of the contribution of organic agriculture to reaching social goals Certification and control systems in the area of organic agriculture.

Detailed information on the programme and the funded projects so far is available on the website www. It has a separate department with 6 specialised areas in organic agriculture.

Leading scientists are Prof. Most universities and the FAL have their own test farms. Areas where there is scope for co-ordinating national programmes at a European level Co-operation at European level seems to be very useful, particularly in the areas of developing new strategies in organic animal and crop production as well as in processing, quality assessment and control.

The last six years the fund has supported projects in organic production with about 6. The Agricultural Productivity Fund has in supported projects in organic agriculture with 8.

An official government policy or programme for research in organic agriculture is being prepared by an Advisory Committee for Organic Agriculture, which has been working on priorities in research in organic agriculture.

Research projects in organic agriculture Plant and animal nutrition A research programme on hay production in an organic system was carried out in The programme was initiated as a beginning of research aimed at the problem of building up and maintaining a fertile soil without artificial fertilisers and to gain experience from the use of legumes in animal feeding.

Horticulture Another project especially designed for organic horticulture was carried out in The purpose was to test the use of various organic wastes in greenhouse cultivation of tomatoes.

The project was supported by the Agricultural Productivity Fund with 1. The results from these experiments expressed mainly as DM yields are available in experimental reports published over a large number of years.

The table below summarises some research projects relevant to organic agriculture. Danso and G. Hardarson Nitrogen accumulation in sole and mixed stands of sweet-blue lupin Lupinus angustifolius L.

Plant and Soil , Danso, F. Is nitrogen transferred between field crops? Examining the question through a sweet blue lupin Lupinus angustifolius L.

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in lupin and clover in Iceland. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation estimated by the use of 15N dilution method in annual blue lupin and perennial Nootka lupin in Iceland.

Tenth International Lupin Conference. Wild and Cultivated Lupins from the Tropics to the Poles. Program and Abstract Book p.

Laugarvatns Iceland Growth of rhizobia at low temperatures. Variation amongst survivor populations of white clover collected from sites across Europe.

Growth attributes and physiological responses to low temperature. Annals of Botany, accepted. Overwintering of Trifolium repens L.

Annals of Botany, xxx-xxx. A model approach to plant-environment interactions. The role of introduced plant material for sustainable development agriculture in northern areas.

Winter hardiness of white clover Trifolium repens. White clover Rhizobium symbiosis: Svenning M. Leinonen Annals of Botany 88, Svenning M.

Interactions between white clover Trifolium repens L. Proceeding at Cost Crop development for cool and wet regions of Europe.

Agricultural Research Institute Reykjavik. Experiment with white and red clover p. The value of compost used in land reclamation Agricultural Research Institute Reykjavik.

RALA report no. Jensen, B. Stenberg, T. Breland, T. Henriksen, F. Palmason, A Pedersen, T. Salo, Near-infrared spectroscopy NIR for characterization of plant residue quality.

Book of Abstracts. The Agricultural College Hvanneyri. Report from the Agricultural College Hvanneyri. In Icelandic. Respiration in peat soil- the effect of organic and artificial fertilizer.

Soil and yield. Organic horticulture, espesially for home gardening, the cultivation of berry bushes and trials for strains of agricultural crop plants.

Ongoing project. New project The projects above are not especially designed for organic agriculture but are also of use for organic farmers e.

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